There are many reasons to conduct action research in the field of education, but if you’re not sure what it entails or how to do it, you may be asking yourself questions like what exactly is action research? and how can I conduct action research in education?
Luckily, whether you’re just learning about action research or are looking to find some practical tips on how to apply it in your own life and work, this helpful guide will help you get started with action research in education.
Action Research in Education: A Practical Guide
Action research is a powerful and flexible research method that can be used both in classrooms and out. It involves doing something (an action), observing the results, adjusting what you’re doing, and then repeating the process.
This process of action-observation-adjustment provides educators with a sense of how their students are reacting to teaching techniques and interventions, as well as an understanding of which techniques work best for which students.
In order to conduct action research effectively, educators need to gather data on student outcomes and understand the context in which they’re working. The act of asking questions while trying new things and reflecting on their experience helps them to identify areas where they may need more support or training, such as identifying key concepts or skills that need extra attention.
And at the end of each cycle, they analyze all this information together so that it becomes part of a larger story about teaching practice over time.
Advantages of Action research in Education
Designing and implementing action research studies can have major benefits for both students and teachers.
Teachers will benefit through :
- increased understanding of their own practice
- improved classroom management techniques
- greater accountability for professional decisions made in the classroom
- increased self-confidence as a result of taking responsibility for one’s own work
- improved ability to make instructional decisions grounded in evidence rather than intuition
- enhanced awareness of school culture (rules, routines), and greater collaborative skills among faculty members.
Students may experience:
- improved academic achievement because of more frequent participation in active learning tasks
- fewer classroom discipline problems; decreased disengagement from schooling
- more frequent engagement with course material
- higher grades on tests and exams; increased knowledge about the subject matter taught
- a greater sense of empowerment, confidence, and mastery over the material learned.
Lastly, there is also considerable qualitative research showing that action research leads to an increase in student agency or power relative to teachers when implemented correctly.
How does Action Research in Education Differ From Traditional research?
Action research differs from the traditional academic research process because it includes many more cycles than traditional research. Action researchers also do not wait until they have collected enough data to make conclusions; instead, the researcher collects whatever data he or she needs from one cycle and then analyzes it before moving on to the next cycle. Finally, unlike traditional research where there is no intervention during the experiment stage, action researchers use actions during these cycles to get feedback and explore different ways of instruction.
They combine the idea of reflective practices with the inquiry by using educational theory to inform changes based on the data collected. Remember traditional research approaches this problem differently. There are two main types of traditional research, experimental and non-experimental methods.
The purpose of experimental studies is to establish causation and show cause-and-effect relationships between variables. Non-experimental methods can help establish correlations but cannot infer causality from them. In both types, active participants are needed for success.
The experimental design calls for the random assignment of participants to groups while the other type has a natural setting without any manipulation. On the contrary, action research takes the opposite approach. An action researcher will observe a phenomenon, identify a question related to it, hypothesize about its causes and effects, perform an intervention designed to test his hypothesis, and finally reach conclusions from the data collected.
Steps in Planning an Action Research Study in Education
Action research in education is an important and powerful means of conducting an action-based inquiry into the nature of teaching and learning.
Here are the steps involved in planning an action research study :
1) Identify the research problem
The research problem could be posed as a question such as Why do some students find it difficult to understand history? or What can I do differently as a teacher that will enable my students to better understand the subject matter?
2) Define your goals for this research project
What are you trying to accomplish by undertaking this research? What new information do you want from your data? Is there any particular outcome that you hope for at the end of your research project? This step may take considerable thought and effort, but it’s essential for setting up expectations about what your research will produce. If you don’t know what you’re looking for, how can you know if you found it?
3) Construct a tentative list of questions
Based on your goal(s), construct a tentative list of questions that need to be answered. At this stage, avoid developing closed-ended questions (e.g., Do students feel safe walking home alone at night?). Instead, try to come up with open-ended questions that require participants to write down their responses (e.g., What strategies do you use when walking home alone late at night?) Research questions should cover all aspects of the topic and must not assume anything about the participants’ experiences.
4) Devise an initial plan for the data collection process
Consider the following questions:
- What kinds of data would you like to collect?
- Who will collect these pieces of data?
- Where will they collect them? How often?
- When will they begin collecting them?
- What do they need to prepare before they start collecting the data?
- How much time do they think it might take before collecting all the necessary pieces of data?
Data collection is a vital component of every action research study in education. It involves gathering data both qualitative and quantitative and interpreting the findings based on previous theories or studies done in the area. To obtain high-quality data, it is essential to create clear guidelines for those collecting the data. These guidelines should include who will collect the data, where it will be collected, how often, and when it needs to be collected.
5) Create a detailed plan for data analysis
In order to effectively analyze your data after it has been collected, you’ll need to develop specific plans for doing so. Depending on your goals and methods, different levels of analysis will likely be required. You should also determine how long the analysis will take–this is something that cannot be completed until after the data has been collected. Finally, identify a date for the final report to be turned in.
Keep in mind that the duration of this stage will depend greatly on the type of data that was collected. For example, a person conducting focus groups would typically spend weeks transcribing and analyzing audio files while a person conducting interviews might complete it within hours
6) Sketch out a rough timeline for the overall research project
Once you have decided what kind of data you would like to collect, it’s helpful to sketch out a rough timeline for the entire research project so you have a sense of how long each phase is likely to take. Take into account various tasks that need to be completed during each phase and keep in mind that many phases overlap one another–you’ll need substantial time at the beginning of your project before any actual data can be collected.
Implementing an Action Research Study in Education
a) Engage your key stakeholders, including students and parents
b) Define your problem or goal (or both)
c) Gather information about existing theories and practices related to your problem or goal
d) Create a control group to compare results against You may have come across the phrase control group while researching different types of studies.
e) Evaluate the action research process throughout the entire process
f) Share your findings with other educators who might find them valuable
- What was my problem or goal?
- Did I succeed in achieving my goal?
- Did I learn something new about myself? My teaching, my students, the school, and so on?
- Did I learn something new about the world outside of my school walls?
- Did I learn how to improve my skills as a teacher?
- What would I do differently next time?
- What are the three most important things I learned?
Reporting the Results of an Action Research Study in Education
After conducting an action research study, researchers can provide valuable information that is helpful for making decisions about education. For example, a researcher might analyze data about how students are spending their time during recess and find that students spend too much time standing around.
The researcher may then recommend changes such as playing more games or instituting a new rule that requires children to stay on the playground until the bell rings at the end of recess. It’s important not only for the educator to understand these changes but also for teachers who will be carrying them out.
In order to make sure that everyone understands the purpose behind the changes, it would be wise for the researcher to explain it in detail and include handouts with suggestions about what should happen when faced with certain problems. Educators should know what type of support they will have if they need help implementing these changes and how they should handle any potential obstacles that arise from the change.